" Participatory Culture in Cyberspace: Literature and its Borders" about helping people handle their financial problems and so on. employing a bottom-up approach (Deuze, “Participation, Remediation.
in a minority language is cultural and political self-representation (Cormack, > deuze, mark ethnic media, Community media and Participatory Culture.
community radio increasingly is being identified as an important cultural resource. This is .. more engaged and participatory culture ' (Deuze But we.

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Arnstein defines informing as forms of one-way communication, which although important still allow people little opportunity to influence decisions. The sociological approach defines participation as taking part in particular social processes, a definition which casts a very wide net. Ethics and the Media: An Introduction. Political leaders as part of government and parliament have a privileged position in society, as decision-making powers are delegated to them, which is the principle of political representation. This part will try to unravel this complexity, by developing a four-level analytical model that positions the many different theoretical and analytical concepts and thus can act as a guide for participatory research applying the political approach.











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If participation is still taken to refer to the equalisation of power relations between privileged and non-privileged actors, in formal or informal decision-making processes, within a particular context, then this choice requires these processes and sub-processes or micro-processes , contexts, actors, decisions and power relations to be theorised and defined, and then to be analysed. Even when several steps are distinguished, these discrete models still suggest fairly crude categorisations e. There is a need to acknowledge the ideological nature of participation, which brings about normative discussions into the desirability of particular participatory intensities. The importance of presence for defining access can also be illustrated through a series of media studies examples: in the case of the digital divide discourse, the focus is, for instance, placed on the access to online media technologies, which in turn allows people to access media content.

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Quirk , is much more aligned with the political approach towards participation. Javnost - The Public. One of the most frequently used anchorage points in critical theory is power, where the equality of power relations or the removal of forms of domination are at the heart of the critical. This brings us back to the Foucauldian dimension of productive power and the overall effect: what kind of participation is being produced within the participatory process under scrutiny? Media research into participatory practices has become popular again, triggered by the interest in online media and their decentralised nature that beholds the promise of empowerment. Moving beyond the ladder-based model, without moving outside the political approach, to do research into participatory processes brings about a series of analytical challenges.